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Section 1 Design Parameters

Section 2 Service Specific Parameters 

 

Description:  The purpose of this unit is to enable you to identify the sources of information and to develop strategies for determining the reliability of design parameters.

Author:  Gates MacBain Associates


Section 1  Design Parameters


Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to: 
  • Describe the methods, sources of information and strategies for determining the reliability of design parameters.


In this unit, we will explore the sources of information and how we can establish the reliability of design parameters.  


Design process and relevant stages 

Once the client needs are identified, the design team maps these with the regulations, standards and codes of practice to establish design parameters. Concept designs are developed and checked for compliance with health and safety and other pertinent legislation.  

These processes can be mapped with both RIBA Plan of Work 2007 (Stage B, C & D) as well as with CIBSE Design Compass (Pre-design and Preliminary design stages). 

The following table will show this clearly 


Building Services design stages - Pre-design & Preliminary design

 

RIBA Stage B

Establish and confirm design requirements from regulations, codes of practice, etc

 

Development of initial statement of requirements into the Design Brief by or on behalf of the client confirming key requirements and constraints

Establish the key stage design parameters that relate to the design of a particular service and the potential use of renewables.

 

Develop room design data sheets

 

RIBA Stage C

Check that the design parameters comply with legislation, energy targets, etc

 

Preparation of Concept Design including outline proposals for building

services systems.

Establish contribution of  renewable sources

 

Consider operating, maintenance and control strategies.

 

RIBA Stage D

Consider health and safety issues

 

Development of concept design for building services systems.

Consider zoning and other service-specific issues.

 



Design Parameters   

The design team needs to establish both internal and external design conditions to inform the design of building services. Design parameters should be reviewed to ensure compliance with legislation and energy targets. The building services engineers should be able to refer to all regulations, codes and standards that relate to the individual project. A checklist of regulations, codes, standards etc, could be used that give specifications on design parameters and energy targets.   

Though the parameters are specific to the type of services, the following apply to most of these. Service-specific parameters are given in a separate section below.  
  • Health and safety requirements for supply, generation and distribution of electric power, air quality, water quality, etc.        
  • Weather data       
  • Contribution of renewables         
  • Control and operation     

Health and Safety Requirements   

A designer has the responsibility to ensure that a design stage risk assessment is produced to ensure a safe design. This includes safety in supply, generation and distribution of electric power. It also includes indoor air quality, comfort conditions, adequate visual environment and acceptable water quality, etc.   


Reliable sources:   
  • The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992: It covers a wide range of workplaces and outline requirements of a healthy workplace in terms of ventilation, indoor temperatures, lighting, etc. 
  • Construction, Design and Management (CDM) Regulations 2007: The regulation make it obligatory for a designer to eliminate hazards that may give rise to risks; and reduce risks from any remaining hazards.   
  • The Noise at Work Regulations 2005: It provides acceptable levels of noise at work. 
  • CIBSE Guide A: deals with health and safety issues issues associated with the generation, transmission and use of electricity.   

Contribution of Renewables 

This is a parameter which will require a ‘whole building’ approach and is to be considered by the designer across the services.  

Reliable sources:
  • The Building Regulations 2000: Low or Zero Carbon Energy Sources: Strategic Guide 
  • CIBSE TM38: deals with renewable energy sources for buildings  
  • BS 8207: This is a code of practice for energy efficiency in Buildings 
  • Renewable Energy Association: A useful resource to evaluate design choices. 
  • British Wind Energy Association: provides data on wind energy by location 
  • CIBSE Guide L: provides general information on Low and Zero Carbon (LZC) technologies and design requirements. 
  • Integrating renewable energy into new developments: is a toolkit for planners, developers and consultants: 


Weather Data 

The external weather and solar data is required for calculation of heating and cooling loads, possibilities of onsite generation and to assess the potential use of renewable technologies. Climate change may require that designers will need to ‘future-proof ’ their buildings.  

Reliable sources:
  • CIBSE Guide A (2006): It contains cold and warm weather data, heating and cooling design temperatures for a range of world-wide locations, solar radiation data and sol-air temperatures for three UK locations: London; Manchester; Edinburgh    
  • CIBSE Guide J (2002) provides extensive data regarding weather, solar and illuminance.     

Climate Change   

It is well known scientific phenomenon that world climate is changing due to excessive carbon emissions. In UK, climate is already variable though we are expected to have milder wetter winter and hotter and drier summers. We should also expect extreme weather events in future. Hence, climate change data is crucial for designing building services.   

Reliable sources:   
  • The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research: It is the UK’s current national centre for inter-disciplinary research into sustainable responses to climate change.   
  • The UK Climate Impact Programme (UKCIP): The UKCIP provides information on current climate trends and advises on the adaptation strategies.   
  • European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D): Project provides indices of extremes and daily information for various European locations including UK:      

Control and Operation 

The engineer should investigate the various control and operation options based on the system under consideration. A checklist of information required, e.g. building plans, space usage, comfort requirements etc, could be used to inform the process.        

The resources listed contain a more detailed explanation of strategies you can adopt in developing design parameters as well as links to reliable sources of information.    



Websites



Publications

  • Churcher, D. (2008) Design Activities and Drawing Definitions (BG 6/2009), 2nd edition. BSRIA
  • Longmaid, J (2004). A Practical Guide to system selection (BG 9/2004). BSRIA 
  • Pennycook, K. (2007). A Quality Control Framework (BG4/2007), 2nd edition. BSRIA
  • Hall, F.& Greeno, R. (2009). Building Services Handbook, 5th edition. Butterworth-Heinemann



Self-Assessment Task

With the help of resources listed above:
  • Choose one of the building services areas and develop a list of design parameters.




Section 2  Service Specific Parameters




Aims and Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to:
  • Describe the methods, sources of information and strategies for determining the reliability of design parameters appropriate to a range of building services applications for complex buildings.


In the previous section we discussed design parameters which are common to range of building services. In this section we will explore service-specific parameters. 


Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) 

Following is a list of parameters and reliable sources of information for HVAC:  

Analysing the building: The building should be analysed to establish fabric thermal performance and infiltration. The design team should explore available guidance, rules of thumb and calculation tools to estimate fabric U-values, solar gains, shading factors and infiltration rates to assess heat losses or gains.  Other parameters include: thermal response of the building, overheating risk of spaces, air quality, etc. This could help in developing heating/cooling/ventilation strategy. Site and building data gathered earlier as well as external and internal design conditions should also be used here.  

Zoning: This is based on temperature variation, hours of operation, glazing levels, air quality requirements, etc. Zoning could help in maximising the efficiency of the heating or cooling system.  

Heating and cooling options: These include various fuel, cooling and heating options available based on ventilation requirements, environmental impact, cost, efficiency etc.  

Control and operation: For the heating systems under consideration, a checklist of the required information is made e.g. building plans, space usage, comfort requirements etc. 

Reliable sources
  • Legislation and StandardsThe Building Regulations 2000 Approved Document L1/L2: deals with conservation of fuel and power in dwellings/other than dwellings  
  • The Building Regulations 2000:  Approved Document F: deals with ventilation  BS EN ISO 6946:2007 – provides methods to calculate thermal resistance and thermal transmittance of building components and building elements 
  • BS EN 12664: 2001; BS EN 12667: 2000; BS EN 12939: 2001: The standards deals with thermal performance of building materials and products. These set out the guidelines to determine thermal resistance of a range of products.  
  • BS EN ISO 7730: Deals with moderate thermal environments and provides guidelines to determine PMV and PPD indices and specification to achieve thermal comfort  
  • BS EN 13779: 2005: Deals with performance requirements for ventilation and air-conditioning systems  
  • BS 7385, Part 1: 1990. The standard provides guideline for measurement of vibration and evaluation of their effects on buildings  Codes of Practice and Guides
  • BS 5250: 1995: This is a Code of practice for the control of condensation in buildings  
  • BS 5925: 1991: This is a Code of practice for ventilation principles and designing for natural ventilation 
  • CIBSE Guide A (2006): It contains cold and warm weather data, heating and cooling design temperatures for a range of world-wide locations, solar radiation data and sol-air temperatures for three UK locations: London; Manchester; Edinburgh   
  • CIBSE Guide J (2002): provides extensive data regarding weather, solar and illuminance.  
  • BS 8233: 1999: This is a Code of practice for sound insulation and noise reduction in buildings. 
  • CIBSE Guide B (2001-02): deals with heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigeration  
  • CIBSE Guide H: deals with building control systems  

Other sources
  • BRE Digest 353 (1990): deals with damage to structures from ground-borne vibration 
  • CIBSE KS8: provides guidelines on how to design a heating system 
  • CIBSE KS10: deals with biomass heating 
  • CIBSE KS4: provides information on understanding controls   

Lighting and Electrical   

Following is a list of parameters and reliable sources of information:   

Analysing and zoning the building: The building is analysed to ascertain design parameters such as lighting/daylight relationship, occupancy patterns, percentage of glazing, space application, electricity demand, load variation, maintenance, controls and metering, building form and orientation. These help in planning zoning for electricity and  lighting.
   
Lighting system: This includes types of lighting such as general, localised, task lighting, display lighting, etc., properties of the equipment such as lumen output, life expectancy and aesthetics.   

Supply voltage demand and system: depends upon building demands and application.
   
Energy conservation: The design should integrate metering and monitoring as part of the energy conservation strategy.   

Reliable sources:   
  • CIBSE Guide A: It provides criteria relating to the environmental factors including visual conditions, electromagnetic fields and static electricity. Health and safety issues are covered including health issues associated with the generation, transmission and use of electricity. A model for calculating heat gains from lighting is also included.   BS 8206-2: 1992: This is a Code of practice dealing with lighting for buildings.   
  • BS EN 12464-1: 2002: The standard provides guideline for light and lighting of indoor work places.   
  • Society of Light and Lighting (SLL) Code(2004): deals with the visual environment in lecture, teaching and conference rooms   
  • CIBSE Guide L and F: provide general information on Low and Zero Carbon (LZC) technologies and design requirements.   
  • CIBSE Lighting Guide LG1 (1989): deals with the industrial environment   
  • CIBSE Guide K: explains legislation and options for on site power generation as well as issues of stand-by generation.   
  • CIBSE TM39: deals with building energy metering     

Public Health   

Following is a list of parameters and reliable sources f information:   

Analysing the building: The engineer should estimate water demand based upon either occupancy or benchmarks, develop water management strategies and assess the building’s need for washing sinks, WCs, baths etc. as well as drainage and waste management needs.   

Reliable sources:   
  • CIBSE Guide G: It provides requirements on the supply, demand and storage of water, drainage and waste storage, disposal and treatment on site. It also covers water treatment requirements for various applications. 
  • CIBSE AM 14: It provides guidance on the design, installation and commissioning of water based heating systems and is aimed at both new and existing buildings. It covers design decision processes that best suit the building type, construction and usage.   

The resources listed contain a more detailed explanation of strategies you can adopt in developing design parameters as well as links to reliable sources of information.    



Websites



Publications

  • Churcher, D. (2008) Design Activities and Drawing Definitions (BG 6/2009), 2nd edition. BSRIA
  • Longmaid, J (2004). A Practical Guide to system selection (BG 9/2004). BSRIA 
  • Pennycook, K. (2007). A Quality Control Framework (BG4/2007), 2nd edition. BSRIA
  • Hall, F.& Greeno, R. (2009). Building Services Handbook, 5th edition. Butterworth-Heinemann



Self-Assessment Task

With the help of resources listed above:
  • Identify sources of information to establish the reliability of the design parameters developed in Section 1.





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